Classroom Management

 

 Properly managing your classroom will allow the school year to remain organized and effective to both you and your students. This section offers ideas on management, some helpful tips, and even resources to allow you to expand your search. 

 

Dr. Douglas Brooks on Classroom Management

Dr. Douglas Brooks is a professor at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio and Director of Partners In Learning. Dr. Brooks received his Ph.D. from Northwestern University in Educational Psychology. He is best known at the national level for his ground-breaking research on the first days of school, nonberbal behavior exchange in the classroom and technology integration. Dr. Brooks is credited with making the first ever videotapes of entry year teachers on the first days of school and comparing those tapes with tapes of experienced, effective classroom managers. He championed the early research in what became known as the "Ecological Model of Teacher Effectiveness." This research continues to be referenced by Dr. Harry Wong in his popular "First Days of School" book and in Dr. Wong's speeches and presentations throughout the country. Dr. Brooks is credited with providing national leadership in the development of entry year induction programs and researching effective strategies for establishing and maintaining teacher influence from the critical first days of school. Dr. Brooks was recently introduced by Dr. Wong to attendees of the Ohio Secondary School Administrators Association as the "most innovative researcher on classroom management in America." Dr. Brooks' creative models organize the proven research in the areas of teaching and learning, classroom management, attitude formation and change, continuous improvement and professional development. He is an award winning university classroom teacher.

Dr. Brooks currently teaches classroom management and senior capstone courses, and he also acts as a  supervisor to student teachers at Miami University. Dr. Brooks also currently teaches public school teachers and administrators how to write successful grant applications.

In this section you will first find information from Dr. Brooks previous classes who have developed the following classroom management models and strategies, as well as powerpoints that further outline this information. Later in this section you will find information that Dr. Brooks teaches in his EDT 421/521 Classroom Management course. This information is meant to help prepare future teachers, and give them helpful models and ideas to follow when constructing their own classroom.

  • The TOTAL QUALITY LEARNING MANAGEMENT MODEL (see attachment below) expresses the relationship between the three major sources of teacher influence (classroom management strategies, instructional design and interpersonal behavior) and learner performance. Classroom teachers gain influence with learners and caregivers through their selection of strategies for classroom management, instructional design and their interpersonal behavior inside and outside the classroom. The perceptions that learners and caregivers form gives the classroom teacher their influence which in turn effects the level of cooperation, engagement and learning that takes place in the classroom.

 

  • The COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC PLAN (see attachment below) expresses a district-wide model for improving teaching and learning. This plan emphasizes the importance of: 1) making the curriculum objectives available to all stakeholders including parents; 2) assessing preferred learning styles to increase learner engagement in instructional design and; 3) attending to adult learning styles and encouraging peer coaching to support lifelong professional development. When these three tracks are integrated, improved learner performance on proficiency tests is assured.

 

  • The INTEGRATED SYSTEM MODEL FOR KNOWING (see attachment below) expresses a conception of the important relationship between the preferred learning styles of students and the tools used to support instruction and learning. Students are most motivated to learn at the "Point of Wonder." If the learner and teacher have full awareness of the learner's preferred learning styles and cognitive styles then the matching instructional system can be integrated into the lesson or activity. When there is an appropriate match between the preferred learning style of the learner (learner systems) and the instructional tool (learning system) then the learning path is most efficient, motivating and learning occurs with speed and clarity creating the "Point of Knowing." The more frequently Points of Knowing occur, the more frequently Points of Wonder are created. Today's iPhone and SERI features are an excellent example of integrated learning systems.....wonder, ask, know in and amazingly short elapsed time (efficient learning path).    

 

  • The LEARNER SYSTEMS-BASED LEARNING SYSTEM DESIGN (see attachment below) expresses a simple instructional session design that emphasizes the importance of: 1) effective opening components; 2) attention to preferred learning styles during instruction and 3) effective closing components. Experienced, effective classroom teachers develop and commit to effective opening and closing routines to attend to unique preferred learning styles. Novice classroom teachers tend to "start" and "stop" instructional sessions with no attention to the important components of effective openings and closings. 

 

Classroom Management Plan (see attachment below)

  • This Classroom Management Plan was developed by a member of Dr. Brooks'  Spring, 2012 EDT 421/521 Classroom Management class. The plan is designed to help entry year teachers organize themselves for the first critical days of school. It includes a recommended sequence of activities for the first day of school, the five critical rules for the classroom and specific recommendations on establishing influence with students.  It includes important components that may change from school to school but should be consistent within the same school at at a minimum. 

  

Building Managment Plan (see attachment below)

  • This Building Management Plan was developed by members of Dr. Brooks' Spring, 2012 EDT 421/521 Classroom Management class .  The plan is designed to help entry year teachers understand the importance of existing school systems and expectations as they organize their own classroom systems and plans. This Building Management Plan included four models developed by Dr. Brooks to help guide teacher and school decisions related to continuous school improvement and improved student performance on state proficiency tests. The BMP includes recommendations for instructional design, responding to student misbehavior, school-wide first day of school activities, as well as helpful classroom management hints. Although these models and ideas are intended for classroom managment use at the high school level, these ideas can be helpful for educators of any grade, and the models can be adapted according to grade level in order to do so.

 

Dr. Brooks' EDT 421/521 Classroom Management Course

below is some material taught in Dr. Brooks' EDT 421/521 course

 

5 WAYS TO MANAGE YOUR CLASSROOM

"It is no secret. A Super Successful Teacher is a good classroom manager who teaches procedures and routine and disciplinbe." Here you will find 5 guidelines to follow to help you plan and create a well managed classroom.

  1. Clearly Define Classroom Procedure and Routines- Effective teachers teach procedures and have students learn routines. Well established procedures help eliminate wasted time.
  2. Teach Students Classroom Procedures and Routines- Effective teachers spend a good deal of time the first weeks of the school year introducing, teaching, modeling, and practicing procedures until they become routines. Review daily schedules and routines. Develop signals to let students know it is time to begin, and to stay on lesson. Don't expect students to learn all the procedures in one day. Procedures must be modeled, monitored, taught, and retaught.
  3. Monitor Student Behavior- Be aware of who is listening, understanding, participating, or misbehaving. Let the students know that you are aware of what is going on at all times.
  4. Handle Inappropriate Behavior Promptly and Consistently- Constantly monitor to detect inappropriate discipline behavior and inconsistency with procedures. Catch a misbehavior when it first occurs, which is when it is easiest to correct. Some ways to do this include; give student "the stare", remind the student of the correct rule or procedure, ask the student to repeat the correct rule, tell the student to stop the violation, tell the student to stop the violation and attach a consequence.
  5. Plan Ahead- Effective teachers not only can have students complete assignments but can teach for mastery too. Have a clear idea of what is to be taught and how it is to be taught

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT RULES

"The most effective classroom management will result from an active and productive classroom environment. You, the teacher, carry the major responsibility for a good learning atmosphere; provide leadership to the students' learning activities". Below is a list of 19 helpful hints/rules to manage and run your classroom by;

  1. Learn all you can about previous school experiences of your students (but do NOT let this information bias you).
  2. Be prepared for class. Ten seconds of idle time can develop into ten minutes of problems
  3. Make your assignments reasonable and clear.
  4. Be a good neat dresser, be business-like, and be friendly
  5. Be prepared for the unexpected (whatever it may be) .
  6. Keep rules to a minimum-basic rules are needed, but too many rules have no real purpose.
  7. Be consistent (for 180 school days)
  8. Never say anything to a student in front of a class that you would not say in the presence of his/her parents
  9. Never, never, NEVER, humiliate a student in front of peers.
  10. Students have plenty of buddies. Don't be a buddy; be a teacher.
  11. Don't be afraid to apologize.
  12. Use the telephone. Let parents work with you.
  13. Never argue with a student in front of the class. The odds are 25 to 1 you'll lose.
  14. Believe it or not- don't see and hear everything. "Teach with one eye and one ear closed!"
  15. Be enthusiastic- it's contagious.
  16. Don't be a screamer. A barking teacher does nothing but make noise.
  17. Don't make study a punishment. You cannot motivate a student to "learn a punishment."
  18. Know your students' hobbies, interests, problems, friends, etc., and show a sincere interest in these things.
  19. Keep administrators informed when dealing with problem students.

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT CRITICAL CONTEXTS

Below is a broken list of procedures to follow during instruction time

Pre-instruction

  1. Be accessible
  2. Teacher initiated contact
  3. Use learner names
  4. Personalize topic exchange

Opening the Session

  1. Visually Scan the class
  2. Routine call to order
  3. Efficient roll taking
  4. Academic organizer
  5. Behavioral organizer
  6. Check for materials
  7. Check for understanding

General Instructional Functions

  1. Review previous work
  2. Presentation
  3. Guided Practice
  4. Corrections and Feedback
  5. Independent Work
  6. Weekly or extended reviews

Transitions

  1. Provide nonverbal cue
  2. Provide verbal cue
  3. Maintain scanning
  4. Explain sxpectations
  5. Signal start of transition
  6. Monitor noise level

Student Initiated Questions

  1. Establish access
  2. Actively listen
  3. Be considering
  4. Probe, inquire, extend

Closing the Session

  1. Signal closing
  2. Review performance
  3. provide motivation
  4. Preview next session
  5. Answer any questions

Post-Instruction

  1. Dismissal
  2. Visual scanning
  3. Provide learner access
  4. Conference to concerns

Student Initiated Disruptions

  1. Review the rule
  2. Establish proximity or stare
  3. Statement of closure
  4. After class meeting
  5. Immediate meeting
  6. Call parent
  7. Move to Principal

DR. BROOKS' TIPS FOR A SUCCESSFUL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

  1. Failing to plan is planning to fail
  2. Plan your classroom management systems inside the building and district plan.
  3. Organize your classroom to meet the infortmation needs and learning characteristics of the learners.
  4. Organize your room so you can see the learners and the door from your workstation
  5. Develop a system for encouraging cooperation and on-task behavior
  6. Have a short list of rules that include the #1 rule "Listen to me when I am talking".
  7. Organize first day activities to encourage success and motivation
  8. Have a schedule of the day on the board at all times
  9. Clear expectations will guide learner behavior and your selection of consequences for misbehavior
  10. Plan your day as a series of activities. Minimize down time during transitions.
  11. Quality instruction will minimize deviancy
  12. Remember "Brooks' Triangle". Classroom managment problems usually can be traced to an individual, including yourself. Once you are sure a problem exists, act on it. Start with the source fo the problem and other learners will fall in line
  13. Once you start an activity, do "Brooks' Spin". Circle around the room twice. Once to insure on-task behavior (materials) and once more to ensure in-task behavior (understanding).
  14. Establish influence inside out (getting to know individuals) and outside in (competence during large group activities).
  15. Remembert that the learners use classroom noise during different activities as a measure of your competence. Quiet during tests. Busy noise during seat work. Quiet during instructions. Moving noise during transitions.
  16. When you do intervene, do it as quickly as possible.
  17. Most learners want to know what is expected. Be clear about expectations.
  18. Get learner work up in the room as quickly as possible. Make the room theirs too!
  19. No gum. No candy that can choke. Know the way out of the building.
  20. Absolutely hammer the learners who pick on others or laugh at them when they ask or answer questions! A quick verbal reprimand usually works here.
  21. Start the day and activities with the same routine. The routines helps learners get settled.
  22. Build readiness audiotapes for parents and critical skill videotapes for learners.
  23. Remember you have listeners and lookers, you have solo and group learners. Build your instruction to take into account this matrix and you will have 95% of the learners in your room anticipated by learning style.
  24. Assess dominant intelligence and cognitive styles as soon as possible in the year.
  25. Put inspirational quotes and positive attitude readings up in the room.
  26. Respect is something you earn by being competent and compassionate.
  27. You have been hired to improve learner performance on proficiency exams.
  28. Contact me once you get a job, I will help if I can!
  29. Successful classrooms are not successful by accident.
  30. If you need to change something, change it. But always do it in the directions of improving learner engagement and cooperation. Gain influence so you have it.

 

EXPERTS ON CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

In this section you will find different beliefs and views written by Charles Dorrel on classroom management from the eyes of experts incuding; Jacob Kounin, Frederic Jones, William Glasser, Rudolf Dreikers, and Lee and Marlene Canter

 

Jacob Kounin on Classroom Management:

Kounin investigated how teachers behavior affects the ways their students behave. He introduced the practice of videotaping classrooms to study how students react to different types of classroom management techniques. He discovered that effective and ineffective classroom managers are not substantially different. The three aspects, which he broke down into four factors, which set them apart are effective managers consistently monitor behavior, they are multi-taskers, and their lessons move at a brisk pace. He considers these aspects, called activity flow, to have the greatest impact on classroom management.

Kounin defined effective classroom management characterized by four factors which he labled "with-it-ness", overlapping, smoothness, and momentum. "With-it-ness" is a general awareness of the classroom, and identifying and correcting behavior promptly. Overlapping is the multitasking done by the teacher. Smoothness is avoiding any interruptions, diversions, or digressions. Momentum refers to keeping the lessons moving at a brisk pace by carefully planning to avoid slowdowns. The ideas help increase students' on-task behavior, and group alerting also helps keeps students involved who are not directly participating.

Poor classroom management is characterized by "dangles", "flip-flops", "fragmentations", "overdwelling", and by directions that are unclear and untimely which lead to off-task behavior. Dangles occur when a teacher moves on without closing a topic, flip-flops happen when a teacher moves goes off topic and returns to the original topic, fragmentation is when you break the activity into too many smaller parts that can be covered in larger parts, and dwelling refers to when a teacher over explains a topic when a class already understands.

Look at Kounin's book "Discipline and Group Managment in Classrooms" for more information

 

Fredric Jones on Classroom Discipline:

Fredric Jones derived many of his beliefs on classroom management from his work as a clinical psychologist with young children with emotional problems. Jones's main idea in his books "Positive Classroom Discipline" and "Postive Classroom Instruction" which were written for educators, focus on managing group behavior to reduce disruptions, and increase cooperative behavior. The four main elements in his approach are limit setting, responsibility training, omission training and backup systems.

  1. Limit Setting- Is the teachers' demeanor that lets students know that the teacher is "in charge" at all times
  2. Responsibility Training- This involves the teacher creating a positive system to encourage cooperation from the students
  3. Omission Training- This takes place when "limit setting" fails, and this is used for those students who are continually provoking the teacher
  4. Back-up Systems- When limit setting fails there always needs to be a back up system in place. This includes three levels; small back-up responses, medium back-up responses, and large back-up responses

Jones believes that educators can avoid many behavior problems in the classroom by setting up a good classroom structure. Using these elements can help ensure that there is a structured clasroom environment in place.

 

William Glasser on Reality Therapy

Glasser believes that students are in control of their own behavior, and they choose when to behave appropriately or inappropriately. Because students misbehavior stems from them making poor choices, Glasser's approach is designed to hlep students make better choices. Glasser advises teachers to not accept students' excuses for their bad behavior, and he encourages teachers to use a process to help students focus on the results of their bad behavior, rather than the causes. Glasser has developed a 7 step plan in order to do this, it is as follows;

  1. Establish involvement with the students
  2. Focus on behavior
  3. Student must accept responsibility for their actions
  4. Student should evaluate their behavior
  5. Develop a plan
  6. Student must make a commitment to follow the plan
  7. Follow-up and follow-through

Glasser suggests class meetings to give students insight into their behavior, and pressure to apply change. For more information, look to Glasser's book "Reality Therapy".

 

Rudolf Dreikers on Respect and Optimism

According to Dreikers a teacher can encourage students to behave appropriately, by treating them appropriately. This means treating them respectfully and optimistically, and stressing cooperation rather than competition, and improvement rather than perfection. He outlines four reasons why students misbehave, and he advisises educators to first determine which factor is the reason, and to respond accordingly. The process he developed in order to help teachers determine the reason students misbehave is as follows;

  1. The teacher observes and collects information about the student situations involving peers and family
  2. After gathering information, the teacher can hypothesize the student's motivation
  3. The teacher can verify that motivation by empathizing with the student's behavior
  4. The teacher can have final verification by the student's recognition reflex to the four following questions

Dreikers realizes that these approaches will not always be effective, and in these circumstances students will have to pay the consequences of their misbehavior in order to lean how to behave appropriately.

 

Lee and Marlene Canter on Assertive Discipline

"We developed Assertive Discipline to give classroom teachers a systematic plan for dealing with student misbehavior. When a plan is in place, students know exactly what behaviors are expected in the classroom, and they can make a choice: to behave and enjoy the rewards or to misbehave and pay the consequences....As teachers become more skilled at managing their classrooms, they can then provide better instruction and hone in on the individual needs of their students."

The Canters believe that there are three types of teachers, assertive, non-assertive, and hostile. Assertive teachers are focused on posting rules, rewards, and establishing consequences, and recognizing techniques of "caught" students. Non-assertive teachers hedge students, and give threats without consequences. Hostile teachers view misbehaviors as personal attacks, they belittle students, and may even resort to physical consequences for misbehavior. The Canters have developed sidetracking techniques that are used by most "caught" students. The Canters also developed the idea of writing the students' name on the board and placing checkmarks next to it for each offense. They later abandoned this idea of public behavior modification, and moved towards a more confidential behavior modification tool; the clipboard. This clipboard keeps track of student offenses and requires them to sign their sheet to acknowledge their actions.

AttachmentSize
Total Quality Learning.ppt139.5 KB
Collaborative Strategic Plan.ppt139.5 KB
Integrated System.ppt139 KB
Classroom Management Plan.ppt9.66 MB
Building Management Plan.ppt9.65 MB
BMP Brooks.pdf1.46 MB