Differentiated Instruction

  Differentiated Instruction

Suzanne Lowman and Kerri Brosier

http://www.bayschools.com/Portals/25/Reading/Differentiated%20Instruction.pdf  Watts-Taffe, Susan, et al. “Differentiated Instruction: Making Informed Teacher Decisions.” Reading Teacher, vol. 66, no. 4, Dec. 2012, pp. 303–314. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/TRTR.01126.

Why it is important?

This source is important because it brings to the table the importance differentiation has in the classroom. The chart above was created to highlight the key aspects of differentiation and why it holds importance in the classroom. The chart and the article explain that differentiation when applied to the classroom can have a “teaching up” effect which means that the instruction is aiding the students learning and that they are growing with their learning. The students learning profiles are being met and acknowledged. They are being taught according to the way that they learn helping them grow and evolve in their learning.

How it applies to the topic

This graph and article both apply to the best practices, instructional design, and learning styles on the performance pyramid. The details of differentiation discuss why it is a best practice, what kinds of instructional designs are applied to it, and how it affects the students different learning styles. The article also discusses how students best collaborate and communicate together when differentiation takes place in the classroom, applying to the collaborative networks area of the performance pyramid.

http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/siteASCD/publications/books/differentiated-classroom2nd-sample-chapters.pdf Tomlinson, Carol Ann. The Differentiated Classroom : Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Vol. 2nd ed, ASCD, 2014. EBSCOhost

Why it is Important?

This is an important source of information on the topic because it contains a whole book describing the fundamentals and specific information related to differentiation. It contains information on how to make a differentiated classroom, how to maintain one, and how to make it beneficial for the students. This source also contains information describing how to collaborate with coworkers discussing the topic of differentiation, how to discuss this topic, and how to best communicate in order to help the students.

How it applies to the topic

This topic applies to the learning styles section of the performance pyramid due to the fact that differentiation affects the way instruction is presented in the classroom. It describes how creating and balancing a differentiated classroom can help students evaluate, reflect, and grow in the classroom. This source explains how differentiation aides the students by providing an area for them to be able to do work that applies to their specific area of learning. In other words, it applies to their specific learning modality. This source explains how you can apply work that aids a visual, spatial, auditory, or motory sensor learner in the classroom, and also work that is presented on the students specific level of learning. The book also explains that in order to do this you need to know your students and speak with the people who are involved in the students lives. This points towards the parental engagement and collaborative networks sections on the performance pyramid.

Video #1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BVvImZcnkw

Why it is important?

This video is important because it gives learners a visual describing the importance of differentiated instruction, how it can be incorporated into a classroom, and how to make it work inside a classroom. This video describes the different types of differentiation, and more specifically, what makes differentiation in a classroom.  

How it applies to the topic

This applies to the instructional design area of the performance pyramid. This is because the video describes which ways your can present differentiation into the classroom, the different types of differentiation, and how to make it work.

Video #2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t7kcFkRgiV4

Why it is important?

This video is important because it shows the impact of implementing a teaching strategy that focuses on meeting the needs of every child. In the video, Mesquite Elementary School is the focus, and presents itself as a strong example of the impact of collaboration and the sharing of ideas that creates a strong team. Mesquite Elementary School uses the strategy of “reteach and enrich,” a powerful method used to meet the needs of each individual student. Based on testing results, teachers use that data to pinpoint the learned skills, as well as the unmastered skills, of each student. Teachers within the school reteach students the skills that they had not learned based on testing results. Based on each student’s skills, and the skills each student has not previously mastered, teachers within the Mesquite Elementary School took the time to help each child master those skills. Because of this, the school's rating went from a "performing school to an excelling school."

How it applies to the topic

This video applies to the best practices section of the performance pyramid. In the video, teachers are seen using the “reteach and enrich” method which is implemented within classrooms to meet the needs of students. This is a differentiated instructional strategy that focuses on strengthening individual strengths of students.

Video #3: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kg38A1ggYiE

Why it is important

With differentiation, students feel supported and an overall positive impact within the classroom. Differentiation makes learning fun for students because it focuses on their strengths and areas for improvement. Students know they are supported when it comes to areas of improvement because differentiation focuses on how to meet the needs of each student. In the video, Highlander Charter School is presented as an example of a school that uses differentiation across curriculum. For example, in one classroom, a teacher explains that she teaches the same content to every student, but uses stations to tailor her lessons to each group of learners. Each station utilizes technology and touches on multiple modalities. Through using stations and differentiated learning, students feel more confident and feel like they are capable, effective learners. According to the video, because of the differentiated instruction across curriculum, the Highlander Charter School "typically outperforms the state in many achievement gap demographics." For example, "Economically disadvantaged students outperformed the state by 35%."

How it applies to the topic

This video applies to the best practices and instructional design sections of the performance pyramid. The video relates to the best practices section of the performance pyramid because it focuses on meeting the needs of students through differentiating instruction by implementing stations within the classroom. As seen within the video, stations allow for students to work with their peers and in small groups, with instruction that is created and targeted to meet the individual needs of students. This video also applies to the instructional design section of the performance pyramid because each station utilizes technology in order to meet the learning styles of every student.

https://www-tandfonline-com.proxy.lib.miamioh.edu/doi/pdf/10.1080/00094056.2017.1300498 Morgan, Hani. “Focus on Technology: Differentiating Instruction With Technology.” Childhood Education, vol. 93, no. 2, Mar. 2017, pp. 181–183. EBSCOhost,doi:10.1080/00094056.2017.1300498.

Why it is important?

As discussed within the article, differentiated instruction is "modifying instruction in response to the needs and interests of all learners" (p. 181). Students learn in a variety of ways, and teachers are able to pinpoint different learning styles through the student's zone of proximal development. In addition, all students have different backgrounds and skills. Therefore, students need instruction that will match their varied learning needs, backgrounds, and skills. In the article, Morgan discusses how teachers can implement technology within their classrooms in a way that will help them differentiate instruction for all students. As discussed within the article, implementing technology within the classroom is powerful when it comes to differentiating instruction. Tools such as interactive whiteboards allow students to have a richer learning experience that is interactive and allows teachers to integrate visual intelligence into their instruction. In the table below, there are many examples provided of technology based activities for differentiating instruction for each learning style.

How it applies to the topic

This article applies to the instructional design and best practices part of the pyramid. In regards to instructional design, the article discusses how teachers can integrate technology into the classroom in order to differentiate instruction. This article also applies to best practices because it focuses on how to meet the needs of all students, recognizing student diversity, through differentiating instruction and technology integration.