Comparative Systems for Teacher Evaluation

ABSTRACT: The performance of early childhood educators throughout Ohio is evaluated in a variety of ways and using a variety of evaluation tools. Some of these tools are developed and implemented by companies such as Pearson and Educopia and are scored by third party educators, while others are enforced through the Ohio Department of Education itself and are scored by administrators within the district in which one teaches. This evaluation process begins as early as when an aspiring teacher begins student teaching, and continues throughout his or her career.
As graduating seniors who will soon be entering the field of education ourselves, we are extremely interested in learning all that we can about how our performance will be evaluated once we begin teaching. Therefore, we have critically analyzed three of the most prominent evaluation tools used in Early Childhood Education today, edTPA, RESA, and OTES, in order to determine whether or not we can identify any similarities, connections, or gradual progressions that persist from one evaluation tool to another. We hope that the research and information presented on this page will help both new and aspiring teachers to feel more prepared and confident when it comes to being evaluated in their fields, as well as provide them with valuable tips and advice from educators who have already undergone each type of evaluation in order to help them to experience the greatest success possible in their evaluation endeavors.



Description of Each Evaluation Tool:                                                                                                                   

EdTPA (Teacher Performance Assessment): 
     Developed By: Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, and Equity (SCALE)
     Implemented By: Pearson Education
     When is it used?: During the first 6 weeks of student teaching
     Purpose: To measure novice teachers' readiness to enter the field
     Procedure: 3 tasks:
1.    Planning for Instruction and Assessment 
2.    Instructing and Engaging Children in Learning
3.    Assessing Children's Learning
     Expectations: A student teacher must...
             - Develop knowledge of subject matter, content standards, and subject specific pedagogy
             - Develop and apply knowledge of varied children's needs
             - Consider research and theory about how children learn
             - Reflect on and analyze evidence of the effects of instruction on children's learning
             - Develop lessons that are active and multimodal in nature
     Self-Reflection: Candidates write commentaries at the end of each task reflecting on the planning, instruction,  
     and assessment process
     Scoring: Candidates are evaluated on 5 components of teaching practice: planning, instruction, assessment,
     analyzing teaching, and vocabulary development. Each of the three tasks has 5 rubrics, and candidates are rated
     from 1 to 5 on each rubric, for a possible total score of 75. Miami's Cut Score: 37
     Scored By: Teachers and teacher educators with subject/grade-level expertise. Scorers can be either national or
     regional, and both types of scorers undergo extensive training. Each portfolio is evaluated by 2 scorers, and the two
     scores are then averaged to obtain a final score
Resident Educator Summative Assessment (RESA): 
     Developed By: Educopia
     Implemented By: Educopia
     When is it used?: During a teacher's 3rd year of the Ohio Resident Educator Program 
     Purpose: Qualifies a teacher for his or her five-year teaching license  
     Procedure: 5 tasks:
1.    First Lesson Cycle  
2.    Formative and Summative Assessment
3.    Second Lesson Cycle 
4.    Communication and Professional Growth
5.    Reflection on Teaching Practice Based on Feedback from Students and/or Colleagues
     Expectations: A teacher must...
             - Design and implement instruction that engages students in complex thinking
             - Use formative and summative assessments to inform teaching practices
             - Work with a trained Facilitator who is provided by a local school district
     Self-Reflection: At the end of each task, candidates complete a form reflecting upon their strengths, weaknesses, and
     areas that need improvement
     Scoring: The score for each task is the summation of each of the component scores obtained on rubrics at the end
     of that task. This "raw score" is converted into a scaled score. The passing score for Tasks 1-4 is 200, with the lowest  
     possible score being 100 and the highest possible score being 300
     Scored By: Licensed teachers, predominantly from Ohio, with at least 5 years of experience and who have
     undergone 30+ hours of training for each RESA task that they score. A different assessor scores each task a candidate
Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES): 
     Developed By: Ohio Department of Education (Part of eTPES, the Ohio Teacher and Principal Evaluation System)
     Implemented By: Principals and administrators within Ohio schools
     When is it used?: Twice a year depending on past teacher performance (Accomplished teachers are evaluated every 3
     years, Skilled teachers are evaluated every 2 years, etc.)
     Purpose: Regularly provides teachers and schools with feedback that helps them ensure high-quality teaching and
     Procedure: (Conducted once midway through the school year and again at the end)
1.    Formal observations and informal classroom walkthroughs
2.    Pre-conference between teacher and principal
3.    Observation
4.    Post-conference between teacher and principal
5.    Both parties complete performance rubric
6.    Written report (year-end evaluation only)
7.    Review and conference
     Expectations: A teacher must...
             - Demonstrate knowledge of content and pedagogy, student needs, and available resources
             - Design coherent instruction and student assessments
             - Create an envirnoment of respect and rapport
             - Establish a culture for learning
             - Manage classroom procedures and student behavior and organize physical space
             - Communicate with students and engage them in learning
             - Use assessment in instruction
             - Reflect on his or her teaching and maintain accurate records
             - Communicate with families and participate in a professional community
     Self-Reflection: Both the teacher being evaluated and the school principal add notes and evidence to each section of the
     evaluation rubric, and a written report is submitted at the end of the school year
     Scoring: The principal rates the teacher as Accomplished, Skilled, Developing, or Ineffective on each section of the
     rubric. If the teacher receives an overall ranking of Accomplished, Skilled, or Developing, he or she is placed on a
     Professional Growth Plan and formulates goals for the next year. If rated Ineffective, the teacher is placed on an
     Improvement Plan.This accounts for 50% of the teacher's overall evaluation, and the other 50% is based on student
     growth measures. (Districts may also choose an alternative evaluation framework that is based 50% on a teacher's
     evaluation by his or her pricnipal, 35% on student growth measures, and 15% on alternative components selected by the
     Scored By: School principal or administrator within the district


Tips, Advice, and Resources from Real Educators:


Education Week: 10 Tips for edTPA Success by Amie Jette

Written by a teaching candidate about her own experiences and challenges while working to complete the edTPA, this article shares valuable advice from someone who has already been through the process. According to Jette, important tips to ensure successful completion of the edTPA include sending out video permission forms to students' families early, including both qualitative and quantitative evidence of student progress in the commentaries completed at the end of each task, and videotaping not just one, but all of the lessons to be included in the final portfolio.

To read the full article, click here:

University of Cincinnati: The edTPA: Tips for Success and Survival

This tip sheet provides teacher candidates with helpful advice when it comes to successfully completing the edTPA by helping them to think about their learning segments in terms of six key categories or tasks: Targeting the specific needs of students, prioritizing the skills and knowledge students will need in order to master the content, analyzing and reflecting upon student learning, integrating technology and academic langauge, and planning throughout the entire process from beginning to end. 

To view the full tip sheet, click here:


VanGuard-Sentinel Career and Technology Services: Tips for RESA Submission

This online tip sheet breaks Task 1, the first RESA Lesson Cycle, down into manageable checklists that not only include specific writing tips, but also tips for online submission, such as the warning that the camera cannot be stopped at any time during filming, and that it is beneficial to use a wireless microphone during filiming to increase sound quality. Lastly, this resource highlights each of the components evaluated by the Task 1 rubrics, so that teachers can ensure that all parts of the rubric are addressed in their submissions.

To view the full tip sheet, click here:

Webinar: Ohio RESA: Navigating Tasks 4 and 5

This webinar presented by Adele McCarthy-Beauvais, project manager of Ohio RESA, walks candidates through both Task 4: Communication and Professional Growth, and Task 5: Reflection on Teaching Practice Based on Feedback from Students and/or Colleagues. Throughout the webinar, McCarthy-Beauvais shares extremely helpful tips for those completing the final tasks of RESA, including how to go about collecting evidence of communication with families in the form of audio recordings, and the importance of protecting the privacy of one's school, colleagues, and students when uploading documents such as emails and letters. This webinar is an excellent resoruce for those completing RESA becuase it not only includes step-by-step checklists for the successful completion of each task, but also answers questions from real Ohio educators during the last half. 

To watch the full webinar, click here:


Forest Hills Teacher Association: OTES Tips

This tip sheet, created by Brenda Kelly, lists 7 thoughtful tips for receiving a positive OTES evaluation, including using a sign- in sheet to document work with students before and after school as evidence for the Instruction and Assessment: Classroom Environment section, keeping a log of phone calls to parents to use as evidence for Collaboration and Communication, and creating a "Parking Lot" in the classroom in order to regularly and informally assess student learning.

To view the full tip sheet, click here:

Teachers Pay Teachers: OTES Evidence Binders

Teachers Pay Teachers is a website in which teaching materials and lesson plans are created by teachers, for teachers in order to ensure maximum success, professional growth, and student learning outcomes. This link provides a variety of templates that will enable teachers to organize their thoughts and collect evidence for each section of OTES that have been created by Ohio educators who have already been through the process. These downloadable templates range in price from $3 to $15, and can serve as a very useful resource for educators undergoing OTES, especially for the first time. 

To browse template options, click here:


A History of Teacher Evaluation in the United States:

“For all of American history, teachers have never really been evaluated in a particularly meaningful way… and certainly haven’t been measured by or held accountable for student achievement.”  -Patrick McGuinn 

       There has never been a widely accepted way of evaluating teachers in the United States, but with the recent Race to the Top program, more research and programs are being developed to help rate teachers’ effectiveness.
       When public school systems first began forming, the local government and clergy were looked to when it came to hiring teachers and assessing their skills. As schools grew and districts became more established, it was acknowledged that the clergy did not have the skills to adequately assess teacher effectiveness. Formal education in the United States began in the mid-1800s, but there were no formal discussions of what skills teachers should possess at this time.
       In the later 19th century and early 20th centuries, the field of education was dominated by the views of John Dewey and Frederick Taylor. Dewey influenced progressive ideas such as student-centered education, connecting the classroom to the real world, differentiation, and integration of content. Taylor had a more scientific view of education and claimed that there were more effective ways to perform tasks and teach students. Taylor used data collection to find the most effective methods. Throughout the years, there were other influences such as Edward Thorndike, Ellwood Cubberley, and William Wetzel, who introduced ideas such as standardized testing, using measures of student learning to determine the effectiveness of teachers or schools, and a focus on social development and democratic values.
       After World War II, the focus of schools moved away from earlier scientific views and focused more on the individual teachers and their needs to best work in their classrooms. There was more of a supervisory role for administrators, which included democratic ideals, opportunities for initiative, understanding human limitations, shared decision making, and delegation of responsibility. At this time, the supervisor's role included a long list of responsibilities that made it hard for him or her to be actively involved in individual classroom activities, and instead he or she was primarily a person the teacher checked in with at standard meeting times.
       There have been many more models and methods of teacher supervision, but in the more recent years the emphasis has switched from supervision to evaluation. As of now, there are still trials behind completed and research being conducted on the effectiveness of teacher evaluation systems. For Ohio, this is being manifested in the OTES process as the 2015-2016 school year is the first mandatory year for schools to use this tool.




EdTPA FAQ. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from

Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, & Equity (SCALE). (2015). EdTPA Early Childhood Assessment Handbook. Stanford, CA: Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University.

Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, & Equity (SCALE). (2014). Making Good Choices: A Support Guide for edTPA Candidates. Stanford, CA: Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University.


Resident Educator Summative Assessment Instrument [Educopia]. (2015). Educopia, Columbus, Ohio.

Ohio Resident Educator Program. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from

2015–2016 RESA Frequently Asked Questions [Educopia]. (2015, October 1). Educopia, Columbus, Ohio.                                                        


Evaluation Requirements for Teachers Rated Accomplished and Skilled. (2016, January 27). Retrieved April 5, 2016, from    

General FAQs About Teacher Evaluation. (2015, October 21). Retrieved April 5, 2016, from

Ohio Department of Education [Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES) Original Framework 2015-2016]. (n.d.). Ohio Department of Education, Columbus, Ohio.

Ohio Department of Education [OTES Training Workbook]. (2012, August). Ohio Department of Education, Columbus, Ohio.

History of Teacher Evaluation

Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (n.d.). Chapter 2. A Brief History of Supervision and Evaluation. Retrieved April 15, 2016, from   

Rucinski, M., & Diersing, C. (2014, May 14). America's Teacher Evaluation System Revolution - Harvard Political Review. Retrieved April 15, 2016, from ">